دانلود ترجمه مقاله آوردن ویگوتسکی و باختین در کلاس درس زبان دوم تمرکز بر به پایان نرساندن ماهیت ارتباط
Key Words: Vygotsky; Bakhtin;
Linguistic Development; Pragmatic Competence
Human development theories have influenced diverse areas of instruction, including second language teaching and learning. Acknowledging the importance of the bidirectional influences between theory and practice, the present paper grounds second language learning within the theories of Vygotsky and Bakhtin as they pertain to linguistic development
. Both Vygotsky and Bakhtin endorsed a communication-based language learning based on their social primacy view of development. In addition, both theorists emphasized the dialogical nature of language and consciousness
. This worldview allowed them to expand the scope of context to include multiple participants and perspectives in creating and understanding the meaning of any linguistic construction
. The role of the teacher as a human mediator is emphasized in guiding the language learning process in the second language classroom with special attention to the instruction of pragmatic competence.
The nature of language instruction has varied to a considerable degree depending on the underlying
theories of human development that provided guidelines for effective teaching and learning. For example,
behaviorist theories have led to audiolingual methodology in language classrooms that focus on the
stimulus-response mechanism of learning (Hadley, 2001)
Because learning is based on reinforcing the stimulus-response associations, pattern drills are encouraged without explanation of underlying linguistic principles
. Directly opposed to behaviorist accounts of learning are theories that focus on the innate cognitive capabilities of individuals. These theories focus on the inherent language acquisition capabilities of individuals with minimal attention to environmental stimulation
. Instructional methods based on this theoretical camp focus on helping students generate their own language rules by moving from what the students already know (from their native language) to the unknown (new rules or old rules used in new situations).
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